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  • Athletic identity The degree to which a person identifies the self as an athlete.

  • Autonomy A sense of choice or control over one's actions and behaviors.

  • Biopsychosocial perspective The view that biological, psychological (e.g., thoughts, emotions, behaviors), and social factors all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness.

  • Cognitive appraisal Interpretation of a situation.

  • Compliance An individual completing a required behavior.

  • Macrotrauma Injury resulting from a single impact or force that creates tissue damage (e.g., fracture, sprain, or dislocation).

  • Microtrauma Injury resulting from repeated smaller forces that gradually result in tissue damage over time (e.g., stress fracture, tendinitis).

  • Pain-spasm cycle Pain that causes vasoconstriction and muscle spasm, which, in turn, causes more pain, which, in turn, exacerbates the cycle; sometimes referred to as the pain-spasm-pain cycle.

  • Rapport The harmonious or synchronous relationship of two or more people who relate well to each other.

  • Rehabilitation adherence Behaviors an athlete demonstrates by pursuing a course of action that coincides with the recommendations of the athletic trainer and is aimed at recovery from injury.

  • Rehabilitation antecedents Biopsychosocial factors (injury characteristics, biological factors, psychological factors, sociodemographic factors, social/contextual factors) that influence rehabilitation adherence and outcomes.

  • Rehabilitation nonadherence The athlete working either too little (i.e., underadherence) or too much (i.e., overadherence) based on recommendations of the athletic trainer.

  • Rehabilitation outcomes Results of rehabilitation; examples include, but are not limited to, functional ability, strength, range of motion, readiness to return to sport, treatment satisfaction, quality of life.

  • Rehabilitation overadherence The athlete doing more than the rehabilitation program calls for.

  • Rehabilitation underadherence The athlete doing less than the rehabilitation program calls for.

  • Self-efficacy Confidence in one's ability to perform a particular task in a specific situation.



After reading this chapter, you will be able to:

  1. Identify and describe factors that influence sport injury rehabilitation from a biopsychosocial perspective.

  2. Discuss detection and consequences of underadherence and overadherence.

  3. Describe the concept of sport injury rehabilitation as performance.

  4. Describe the psychosocial strategies that the athletic trainer can use to motivate the athlete during injury rehabilitation.

  5. Select and integrate appropriate psychosocial strategies into an athlete's rehabilitation program to enhance rehabilitation adherence, return to participation, and overall outcomes.


José had been looking forward to joining the high-school cross-country team, affectionately called the "Cross- Country People," since he was in elementary school and watched his older sister win her first race. With both his mother and father as amateur runners, running was part of José's family. During his freshman year on the team, he was training particularly hard and taking extra hill runs along the road on the weekends to try and better his times. Partway through the season, he started to notice pain on the lateral side of his right knee. He tried to run through and ignore the pain, but ...

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