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  • Active listening Communication technique that requires the listener to feed back what is heard by restating or paraphrasing; to confirm what was heard and to confirm the understanding of both parties.

  • Affect A feeling or emotion.

  • Attending skills Ability to elicit information from others and listen intently to responses.

  • Benign pain Temporary occurrence of discomfort that is not associated with new tissue damage; characterized as dull and generalized with no swelling or localized tenderness.

  • Biopsychosocial perspective The view that biological, psychological (e.g., thoughts, emotions, behaviors), and social factors all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness.

  • Cognitive appraisal Interpretation of a situation.

  • Decoding Process of interpreting meaning from the symbolic codes used to send a message.

  • Empathy Being sensitive to and vicariously experiencing the feelings, thoughts, or motives of another person.

  • Encoding Process of putting an intended message into symbolic code (e.g., words, gestures, facial expressions) that can be observed.

  • Feedback A verbal or nonverbal response or reaction to a message received.

  • Healing cycle Cycle of recovery characterized by ups, downs, plateaus, and setbacks.

  • Healing imagery Focusing attention on a target visual stimulus to produce a specific physiological change that can promote healing.

  • Injury pain Occurrence of pain that signals actual or potential tissue damage.

  • Listening Perception and understanding of auditory signals.

  • Message A thought, feeling, or idea that is conveyed to another person.

  • Noise Internal and external barriers that prevent effective delivery or receipt of communicated messages.

  • Nonverbal communication The expression of thoughts, feelings, or ideas without the use of words.

  • One-way communication Communication process focused exclusively on getting messages from the sender to the receiver.

  • Open posture An open stance in which arms and legs are not crossed in any way.

  • Paralanguage Vocal characteristics associated with communication.

  • Paraphrasing Process of restating what was understood in a message back to the sender.

  • Proxemics Communication expressed through the space between people as they interact.

  • Rapport The harmonious or synchronous relationship of two or more people who relate well to each other.

  • Receiver Person to whom a sender conveys a communicated message.

  • Reframing Changing the way one views a situation by consciously choosing to attend to different aspects of the situation.

  • Sender A person who wishes to convey a message to another.

  • Two-way communication A bidirectional sharing of information between the sender and receiver.

  • Verbal communication Use of written or spoken messages to convey a thought, feeling, or idea.



After reading this chapter, you will be able to:

  1. Identify the key components in the interpersonal communication process.

  2. Identify the mechanisms of nonverbal communication.

  3. Identify methods of developing rapport with athletes, both before and after injury.

  4. Describe why injury education is important for healing outcomes following sport injury.

  5. Describe types of relevant injury-related information that must be communicated to athletes.

  6. Identify the importance of a fully developed communication skill set to ...

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