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  • Active listening Communication technique that requires the listener to feed back what is heard by restating or paraphrasing; to confirm what was heard and to confirm the understanding of both parties.

  • Athletic identity The degree to which a person identifies the self as an athlete.

  • Cognitive appraisal Interpretation of a situation.

  • Cognitive rest Stopping activities that require concentration and attention; may include a temporary leave from academic/work responsibilities, reduced school day/workload, and/or additional time allowed to complete tasks or tests.

  • Cognitive restructuring A cognitive behavioral strategy used to identify and replace irrational or maladaptive thoughts that often occur in anxiety-provoking situations.

  • Concussion A complex pathophysiological process that affects the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces.

  • Countering A technique used to challenge the veracity of irrational and/or maladaptive thoughts by using logical counterstatements.

  • Dissociative imagery A relaxation strategy to distract the athlete from focusing on injury-related pain.

  • Emotion-focused coping Strategies aimed at reducing the negative emotional response associated with stress; may be the only realistic option when the source of stress is outside of the person's control.

  • Healing imagery Focusing attention on a target visual stimulus to produce a specific physiological change that can promote healing.

  • Instrumental coping Strategies that target the causes of stress in practical ways that address the stress-producing problem or situation, consequently directly reducing the stress; examples include finding out about the injury, attempting to alleviate sources of stress and discomfort, and listening to the advice of health professionals.

  • Malingering Intentionally pretending to have or exaggerating physical or psychological symptoms, especially to avoid work or a return to participation.

  • Postconcussion syndrome (PCS) A complex disorder in which a variable combination of postconcussion symptoms (such as headache and dizziness) last for weeks and sometimes months after the concussive event.

  • Post-traumatic growth (PTG) A positive psychological change experienced as a result of highly challenging life events and circumstances.

  • Primary appraisal Initial assessment of a situation to evaluate it as a threat or challenge.

  • Secondary appraisal Secondary assessment of a situation, including assessment of available coping resources.

  • Secondary gain Favorable consequences, such as increased attention from significant others and escape from stressful situations, or medication use, that occur in conjunction with the generally undesirable injury.

  • Self-efficacy Confidence in one's ability to perform a particular task in a specific situation.

  • Self-talk Internal and/or external statements to the self, multidimensional in nature, that have interpretive elements associated with their content; it is dynamic and serves at least two functions (instructional and motivational).

  • Social support Includes the feeling or sense of being supported by others, the act of supporting others, and social integration.

  • Thought stopping A psychological strategy that allows the athlete to gain control over the thought process, changing negative thoughts to more productive positive thoughts.

  • Trait anxiety A stable personality construct of worry (includes high and low).



After reading this chapter, you will be able to:

  1. Integrate ...

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