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24-hour urine specimen: total urine excreted over 24 hours, collected for analysis


angiography: diagnostic or therapeutic radiography (radiological imaging) of the heart and blood vessels

arterial blood gases (ABGs): measurement of O2 and CO2 levels and acid-base balance (pH balance) in arterial blood

antinuclear antibody (ANA): test to detect the presence of autoantibodies which may suggest an autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis

arthrography: radiological examination of a joint after injection of a contrast fluid into the joint space

audiometry: detailed measurement of hearing with an audiometer

automated external defibrillator (AED): small computer-driven defibrillator that analyzes the patient’s rhythm, selects the appropriate energy level, charges the machine, and delivers a shock to the patient

automatic implanted cardioverter defibrillator (AICD): very small defibrillator, surgically implanted in patients with a high risk for sudden cardiac death, that automatically detects and treats life-threatening arrhythmias

average blood glucose (eAG): reflection of the average blood glucose level over the past 2 to 3 months reported by the same units (mg/dl) seen on glucose meters; directly correlates to HbA1c results


barium enema: enema containing a substance that shows up clearly under x-ray and fluoroscopic examination

barium swallow: x-ray examination of the esophagus after the patient has swallowed a liquid that contains barium

biopsy: removal of a tissue sample for microscopic examination

bladder ultrasound (bladder scan): noninvasive use of a portable ultrasound device to measure the amount of retained urine

blood urea nitrogen (BUN): lab value used to measure kidney function, based on nitrogen levels in the blood

bone marrow aspiration: removal of a bone marrow specimen from the cortex of a flat bone for analysis

bone scan: use of a gamma camera to detect abnormalities in bone density after injection of radioactive material

BOTOX: injection of a small amount of botulinum toxin into selected muscles of the face; interferes with muscle contraction, thereby reducing the appearance of wrinkles

bronchoscopy: visual examination of the airways of the lungs


C-reactive protein (CRP): test to detect or monitor inflammatory conditions

cardiac catheterization: evaluation of the heart vessels and valves via the injection of dye that shows up under radiology

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR): emergency procedure that provides manual external cardiac compression and sometimes artificial respiration

cardioversion: restoration of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) by chemical or electrical means

CD-4 lymphocyte count: measurement of the number of specialized WBCs sometimes called helper T cells, used to identify whether a person’s HIV infection is worsening


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