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absorptive cells cells lining the surface of fingerlike projections extending from the inner surface of the small intestine that take in small compounds from the digestive tract and break them down further, preparing them for absorption into the bloodstream

abstinence violation effect the behavior of people who resume a behavior they are trying to avoid after a period of abstinence; the resumption of the behavior is triggered by a single episode of failing to follow the new planned behavior, such as failing to follow a prescribed diet

abuse use of a substance or performance of a behavior that hurts or endangers the user or those around him or her

accelerometer an instrument that provides an indication of exercise volume by measuring changes in the speed of movement

acquired immunity the immune system's ability to recognize and attack pathogens, developed over time from prior exposure to these pathogens

action (stage of change) one of the six stages of change in the Transtheoretical Model in which the behavior change is in progress; however, the new behavior has not yet lasted 6 months

action plan a plan that spells out the where, when, and how details of behavior-change recommendations

activation energy level (in reference to mood), with deactivated meaning low energy level and activated meaning high energy level

active static stretching a form of flexibility training in which a muscle group is placed in a stretching position, and the opposing muscle group is isometrically contracted

acute an adjective describing something with a sudden onset that is relatively short lived, such as an illness

acute stress response the immediate psychophysiological reaction to a stressor

adaptive coping responses coping strategies that produce desirable long-term results

addiction the compulsive use of a substance or performance of an activity even if it is causing or is likely to cause harm

adiponectin a substance secreted by fat cells that increases the responsiveness of the body's cells to insulin

adiposopathy the hypertrophy of visceral adipocytes, associated with many negative health effects

adrenal cortex the outside layer of the adrenal gland

adrenal glands glands that sit on top of the kidneys, with an outside layer called the adrenal cortex and an inner portion called the adrenal medulla

adrenal medulla the inner portion of the adrenal gland

adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that acts on the adrenal cortex, stimulating it to release two families of hormones called glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

aerobic exercise activities that involve movement of the large muscle groups at a moderately vigorous level, leading to a sustained elevation in metabolic rate

affect the perceived positive or negative nature of moods ...

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