Sections View Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Full Chapter Figures Tables Videos Supplementary Content ++ A ++ Active listening Communication technique that requires the listener to feed back what is heard by restating or paraphrasing; to confirm what was heard and to confirm the understanding of both parties. Acute Of short onset or duration. Acute pain Pain of recent and sudden onset; typically high-intensity pain localized at or near the site of injury. Adrenocorticotropic hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to stress. Affect A feeling or emotion. Affirmation Statement(s) made to the self to encourage, motivate, and improve self-worth. Affirmation statements Positive, action-oriented self-talk that affirms athletes' abilities. Allodynia Extreme sensitivity to an innocuous stimulus (such as light touch or cold); pain from sunburn is a common example. Antecedent A preceding event or condition, or a preexisting factor. Anterior cingulate cortex Frontal part of cingulate cortex in the brain; plays a role in cognitive functions such as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy, and emotion. Arousal Psychological or physiological state of being alert. Athlete-centered care Providing individualized care to an athlete. Athletic identity The degree to which a person identifies the self as an athlete. Attending skills Ability to elicit information from others and listen intently to responses. Autonomy A sense of choice or control over one's actions and behaviors. ++ B ++ Benign pain Temporary occurrence of discomfort that is not associated with new tissue damage; characterized as dull and generalized with no swelling or localized tenderness. Biopsychosocial perspective The view that biological, psychological (e.g., thoughts, emotions, behaviors), and social factors all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness. Burnout Psychological, emotional, and physical withdrawal from an activity that was previously enjoyable; a response to excessive stress and dissatisfaction with sports participation. ++ C ++ Cerebral cortex A part of the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. Chronic Of long onset or duration. Chronic pain Pain that persists beyond the normal time expected for healing (typically a minimum of 3–6 months). Clinical trial Research involving tests that generate safeuse data for health interventions by comparing existing and new drugs or procedures that change a participant's health/behavior. Cognitive appraisal Interpretation of a situation. Cognitive relaxation A relaxation method that includes verbal and visual cues, which lead individuals to a relaxing time and place. Cognitive rest Stopping activities that require concentration and attention; may include a temporary leave from academic/work responsibilities, reduced school day/workload, and/or additional time allowed to complete tasks or tests. Cognitive restructuring A cognitive behavioral strategy used to identify and replace irrational or maladaptive thoughts that often occur in anxiety-provoking situations. Competence A sense of being capable or proficient in one's pursuits. Compliance An individual completing a required behavior. Concussion A complex pathophysiological process that affects the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces. Coping skills Mechanisms that promote the ability to cope with a stressor or situation; built ... GET ACCESS TO THIS RESOURCE Sign In Username Error: Please enter User Name Password Error: Please enter Password Forgot Username? Forgot Password? Sign in via OpenAthens Sign in via Shibboleth Get Free Access Through Your Institution Contact your institution's library to ask if they subscribe to McGraw-Hill Medical Products. What is MyAccess? Create a FREE MyAccess profile to: Use this site remotely Bookmark your favorite content Track your self-assessment progress and more!