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  • Active listening Communication technique that requires the listener to feed back what is heard by restating or paraphrasing; to confirm what was heard and to confirm the understanding of both parties.

  • Acute Of short onset or duration.

  • Acute pain Pain of recent and sudden onset; typically high-intensity pain localized at or near the site of injury.

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to stress.

  • Affect A feeling or emotion.

  • Affirmation Statement(s) made to the self to encourage, motivate, and improve self-worth.

  • Affirmation statements Positive, action-oriented self-talk that affirms athletes' abilities.

  • Allodynia Extreme sensitivity to an innocuous stimulus (such as light touch or cold); pain from sunburn is a common example.

  • Antecedent A preceding event or condition, or a preexisting factor.

  • Anterior cingulate cortex Frontal part of cingulate cortex in the brain; plays a role in cognitive functions such as reward anticipation, decision-making, empathy, and emotion.

  • Arousal Psychological or physiological state of being alert.

  • Athlete-centered care Providing individualized care to an athlete.

  • Athletic identity The degree to which a person identifies the self as an athlete.

  • Attending skills Ability to elicit information from others and listen intently to responses.

  • Autonomy A sense of choice or control over one's actions and behaviors.


  • Benign pain Temporary occurrence of discomfort that is not associated with new tissue damage; characterized as dull and generalized with no swelling or localized tenderness.

  • Biopsychosocial perspective The view that biological, psychological (e.g., thoughts, emotions, behaviors), and social factors all play a significant role in human functioning in the context of disease or illness.

  • Burnout Psychological, emotional, and physical withdrawal from an activity that was previously enjoyable; a response to excessive stress and dissatisfaction with sports participation.


  • Cerebral cortex A part of the brain that plays a key role in memory, attention, perceptual awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

  • Chronic Of long onset or duration.

  • Chronic pain Pain that persists beyond the normal time expected for healing (typically a minimum of 3–6 months).

  • Clinical trial Research involving tests that generate safeuse data for health interventions by comparing existing and new drugs or procedures that change a participant's health/behavior.

  • Cognitive appraisal Interpretation of a situation.

  • Cognitive relaxation A relaxation method that includes verbal and visual cues, which lead individuals to a relaxing time and place.

  • Cognitive rest Stopping activities that require concentration and attention; may include a temporary leave from academic/work responsibilities, reduced school day/workload, and/or additional time allowed to complete tasks or tests.

  • Cognitive restructuring A cognitive behavioral strategy used to identify and replace irrational or maladaptive thoughts that often occur in anxiety-provoking situations.

  • Competence A sense of being capable or proficient in one's pursuits.

  • Compliance An individual completing a required behavior.

  • Concussion A complex pathophysiological process that affects the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces.

  • Coping skills Mechanisms that promote the ability to cope with a stressor ...

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