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  • Affirmation Statement(s) made to the self to encourage, motivate, and improve self-worth.

  • Athletic identity The degree to which a person identifies the self as an athlete.

  • Clinical trial Research involving tests that generate safe-use data for health interventions by comparing existing and new drugs or procedures that change a participant's health/behavior.

  • Cognitive relaxation A relaxation method that includes verbal and visual cues, which lead individuals to a relaxing time and place.

  • Cognitive restructuring A cognitive behavioral strategy used to identify and replace irrational or maladaptive thoughts that often occur in anxiety-provoking situations.

  • Coping skills Mechanisms that promote the ability to cope with a stressor or situation; built from experience or learned.

  • Evidence-Based Practice A methodology that combines clinical expertise and the best available systematic research evidence when making decisions about patient care.

  • Extrinsic motivation Behavior that is driven by a desire to attain a specific outcome; motivation from an outside source.

  • Healing imagery Focusing attention on a target visual stimulus to produce a specific physiological change that can promote healing.

  • Holistic Related to healing; a holistic approach includes all parts of the healing system—the mind and the body—in the healing process.

  • Intrinsic motivation Behavior that is driven by an interest or enjoyment in the task itself (e.g., personal best).

  • Meta-analysis A research method that takes data from a number of independent studies and integrates it using statistical analysis.

  • Nonresponse bias A research term that describes a situation in which the answers of respondents differ from the potential answers of those who did not answer.

  • Pain-management imagery Focusing attention on a target visual stimulus to produce specific images to promote pain-management strategies (e.g., visualizing the pain flying away or lying in a meadow free of pain).

  • Performance imagery The creation or re-creation of an experience in the mind from memory or quasi-experience using a combination of the five senses with the goal of improving an aspect of a performance in sport or rehabilitation.

  • Positive affirmation A positive declaration of truth; used in rehabilitation and healing to improve mindset and to motivate.

  • Psychological skills Mental skills, techniques by which the individual can use the mind to control the body or to create an outcome.

  • Psychosocial strategies A term typically used to describe a range of psychosocial skills and techniques athletes can use to control their thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.

  • Psychosocial techniques Methods athletes can use to rehearse, improve, and maintain their psychological skills.

  • Rehabilitation-process imagery Focusing attention on a target visual stimulus to produce specific images of different aspects of the rehabilitation process.

  • Relaxation Release of tension in the body; return to equilibrium.

  • Self-talk Internal and/or external statements to the self, multidimensional in nature, that have interpretive elements associated with their content; it is dynamic and serves at least two functions (instructional and motivational).

  • Somatic relaxation A relaxation method that leads the participant to a relaxed state through focus on the breath and breathing patterns.

  • Systematic review A research method ...

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