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  • Acute Of short onset or duration.

  • Adrenocorticotropic hormone A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in response to stress.

  • Antecedent A preceding event or condition, or a preexisting factor.

  • Athletic identity The degree to which a person identifies the self as an athlete.

  • Chronic Of long onset or duration.

  • Cognitive appraisal Interpretation of a situation.

  • Cognitive relaxation A relaxation method that includes verbal and visual cues, which lead individuals to a relaxing time and place.

  • Cortisol A naturally occurring stress hormone in the human body that is associated with the fight-or-flight response.

  • Mood Emotional state (e.g., happy, sad).

  • Motivational Strategies that influence an individual's desire or drive.

  • Pain-spasm cycle Pain that causes vasoconstriction and muscle spasm, which, in turn, causes more pain, which, in turn, exacerbates the cycle; sometimes referred to as the pain-spasm-pain cycle.

  • Positive affirmation A positive declaration of truth; used in rehabilitation and healing to improve mind-set and to motivate.

  • Primary appraisal Initial assessment of a situation to evaluate it as a threat or challenge.

  • Progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) A technique for learning to monitor and control muscle tension.

  • Rehabilitation nonadherence The athlete working either too little (i.e., underadherence) or too much (i.e., overadherence) based on recommendations of the athletic trainer.

  • Rumination Cyclic nature of the thought process, where thoughts that one ignores resurface more often; stable trait, linked to depression.

  • Secondary appraisal Secondary assessment of a situation, including assessment of available coping resources.

  • Self-talk Internal and/or external statements to the self, multidimensional in nature, that have interpretive elements associated with their content; it is dynamic and serves at least two functions (instructional and motivational).

  • Social support Includes the feeling or sense of being supported by others, the act of supporting others, and social integration.

  • Somatic relaxation A relaxation method that leads the participant to a relaxed state through focus on the breath and breathing patterns.

  • Stress Response of the body to any demand made upon it; physiological (i.e., body, muscle tension) or psychological (i.e., overwhelming feelings that are good or bad).

  • Stressor Stress producer; may be positive (eustress) or negative (distress).

  • Thought stopping A psychological strategy that allows the athlete to gain control over the thought process, changing negative thoughts to more productive positive thoughts.

  • Trait anxiety A stable personality construct of worry (includes high and low).



After reading this chapter, you will be able to:

  1. Describe the physiological, behavioral, and emotional impact of psychological stress.

  2. Describe the role that stress plays in the risk for injury.

  3. Describe how to identify and measure athlete stress.

  4. Summarize the impact that the athletic trainer can have in regard to an athlete's management of stress and injury prevention.

  5. Identify psychosocial strategies to reduce injury risk.

  6. Implement psychosocial strategies to reduce injury risk.


It is the first home game of the season, and Susan, ...

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