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  1. Describe the immediate changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems after the start of exercise.

  2. Describe the changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during submaximal steady-state exercise.

  3. Describe the changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during incremental exercise up to maximum intensity.

  4. Describe the changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems that occur during recovery from exercise.

  5. Compare and contrast common methods to measure ventilatory threshold.

  6. Explain the role of receptors that control respiratory and cardiovascular functions during exercise.

  7. Identify the factors that regulate the control of peripheral blood flow to the organs and working muscle.

  8. Describe the cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise training that occur at rest.

  9. Describe the cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise training that occur during submaximal and maximal exercise.

  10. Describe the acute cardiovascular responses to dynamic and isometric resistance exercise.


Visit DavisPlus at for study and practice resources, including online quizzes, animations that help explain physiological processes, podcasts concerning news and career trends in exercise physiology, and practice references.



  • After the first few personal-training sessions with Chris, a previously sedentary man in his late 30s, Rachel recognizes that he seems very concerned about how he feels during workouts. He frequently says things like, "Why is my face so red?" and "I'm starting to feel overheated." As a personal trainer, Rachel recognizes that these are normal responses to physical exertion. Because new clients often have questions about physical exertion, Rachel offers educational fact sheets as part of her comprehensive personal training services. Rachel gives Chris a handout that briefly describes what to expect during a workout.

    What else can Rachel do to help alleviate Chris' concerns?

  • Because Chris has very little experience with physical activity, Rachel decides to devote the warmup period of his next session to educating him about what happens in the body when exercise begins. As Chris starts to walk on the treadmill, Rachel points out that his HR and SV have both increased. "Can you feel that change in your heartbeat? The HR speeds up to provide more blood and oxygen to your working muscles, enabling you to exercise more vigorously." By pointing out that this is a perfectly normal response to the onset of exercise, Rachel has alleviated some of Chris' fears about what he feels during his workouts. As Chris continues with his warm-up and then the conditioning part of his workout, Rachel continues to explain the changes he feels, such as an increase in respiratory rate (RR) and light sweating for proper thermoregulation. Chris really appreciates the education and seems to be enjoying the exercise instead of becoming stressed and asking questions.

  • During that same workout, after Chris has completed about 10 minutes of walking on the treadmill at a speed of 4 miles per hour, he mentions that he feels really good and seems to have caught his second wind. ...

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