Achilles tendinitis: Inflammation of the Achilles tendon with possible involvement of the tendon sheath. Pain can be elicited on the posterior heel with passive dorsiflexion.
Acromioclavicular joint (AC): Gliding joint between the distal clavicle and the acromion process.
Adduct: Movement of a body part toward the midline of the body.
Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.
Annular ligament: Encircles the radial head and neck and stabilizes the radial head with the radioulnar joint.
Anterior: Front surface of a body part.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): One of two cruciate ligaments in the knee. Attaches from the anterior aspect of the tibia to the medial surface of the lateral femoral condyle and prevents the tibia from moving anteriorly on the femur, internal and external rotation of the tibia on the femur, and hyperextension of the tibia.
Anterior dislocation/subluxation: Complete or partial separation of humerus from glenoid fossa toward the front of the body.
Anterior instability: Ligamentous laxity and muscular weakness of the glenohumeral joint allowing humeral head to translate anteriorly.
Anterior talofibular ligament: Attaches from the lateral talus to the fibular malleolus and resists anterior movement of the talus. The most commonly injured ligament of the ankle.
Anterior tibialis tendinitis: Inflammation of the anterior tibialis tendon. Pain can be elicited in the lace area with passive plantar flexion.
Anterior tibiofibular ligament: Attaches from the distal anterior fibula to the tibia to join the bones.
Application area: Space in a health care facility dedicated for the application of taping, wrapping, bracing, and padding techniques.
Avulsion fracture: Tearing away of a piece of bone from a larger bone by force.
Bankart lesion: Avulsion injury causing permanent damage to the anterior rim of the glenoid labrum, often associated with an anterior dislocation and/or instability of the glenohumeral joint.
Bimalleolar fracture: Fracture of the medial and lateral malleoli.
Bloodborne pathogens: Disease-producing micro-organisms transmitted through blood and bodily fluids.
Boxer’s fracture: Fracture of the fifth metacarpal.
Bunion (hallux valgus): Enlargement of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe as a result of inflammation and thickening of the bursa, with the toe often becoming angled toward the second toe.
Bunionette: Enlargement of the metatarsophalangeal joint of the fifth toe as a result of inflammation and thickening of the bursa, with the toe often becoming angled toward the fourth toe.
Burner: Brachial plexus trauma resulting in a burning and/ or tingling sensation often associated with numbness.
Bursitis: Inflammation of a bursa.
Calcaneofibular ligament: Attaches from the lateral malleolus to the calcaneus and resists talar inversion.