Pharmacologic: third-generation cephalosporins
Treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible organisms: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, Otitis media, Pharyngitis and tonsillitis.
Binds to the bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell death. Therapeutic Effects: Bactericidal action against susceptible bacteria. Spectrum: Similar to that of second-generation cephalosporins, but activity against staphylococci is less, whereas activity against gram-negative pathogens is greater, even for organisms resistant to first- and second-generation agents. Notable is increased action against Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase–producing strains), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus, Providencia, Moraxella catarrhalis (including β-lactamase–producing strains).
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
CNS: SEIZURES (VERY HIGH DOSES IN PATIENTS WITH RENAL IMPAIRMENT), dizziness, headache. GI: PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting. Derm: rashes, urticaria. Hemat: bleeding, eosinophilia, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytosis. Misc: ALLERGIC REACTIONS, INCLUDING ANAPHYLAXIS, superinfection.
PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPLICATIONS
Examination and Evaluation
Watch for seizures; notify physician immediately if patient develops or increases seizure activity.
Monitor signs of pseudomembranous colitis, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, pus or mucus in stools, and other severe or prolonged Gi problems (nausea, vomiting, heartburn). Notify physician or nursing staff immediately of these signs.
Monitor signs of allergic reactions and anaphylaxis, including pulmonary symptoms (tightness in the throat and chest, wheezing, cough dyspnea) or skin reactions (rash, pruritus, urticaria). Notify physician or nursing staff immediately if these reactions occur.
Monitor signs of blood dyscrasias including eosinophilia (fatigue, weakness, myalgia), hemolytic anemia (malaise, dizziness, jaundice, abdominal pain), leukopenia (fever, sore throat, mucosal lesions, signs of infection), thrombocytopenia (bruising, nose bleeds, bleeding gums, other unusual bleeding), or thrombocytosis (headache, dizziness, chest pain, fainting, visual disturbances, numbness or tingling in the hands and feet). Report these signs to the physician.
Assess dizziness that might affect gait, balance, and other functional activities (See Appendix C). Report balance problems and functional limitations to the physician and nursing staff, and caution the patient and family/caregivers to guard against falls and trauma.
Always wash hands thoroughly and disinfect equipment (whirlpools, electrotherapeutic devices, treatment tables, and so forth) to help prevent the spread of infection. Use universal precautions or isolation procedures as indicated for specific patients.
instruct patient to notify physician immediately of signs of superinfection, including black, furry overgrowth on tongue, vaginal itching or discharge, and loose or foul-smelling stools.
instruct patient and family/caregivers to report other troublesome side effects such as severe or prolonged headache, skin problems (rash, hives), or GI problems (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, heartburn).
Absorption: Well absorbed after oral administration; absorption decreased by food.
Distribution: Widely distributed. Crosses the placenta.