Pharmacologic: third-generation cephalosporins
Treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible organisms: Skin and skin structure infections, Uncomplicated urinary tract infections, Uncomplicated gynecologic infections, including gonorrhea, Respiratory tract infections, Otitis media.
Binds to the bacterial cell wall membrane, causing cell death. Therapeutic Effects: Bactericidal action against susceptible bacteria. Spectrum: similar to that of second-generation cephalosporins, but activity against staphylococci is less, whereas activity against gram-negative pathogens is greater, even for organisms resistant to first- and second-generation agents. Notable is increased action against: Haemophilus influenzae (including β-lactamase–producing strains), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Proteus. Not active against methicillin-resistant staphylococci or enterococci.
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
CNS: SEIZURES (VERY HIGH DOSES), headache. GI: PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS COLITIS, diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting. Derm: rashes, urticaria. GU: vaginal moniliasis. Hemat: bleeding, blood dyscrasias, hemolytic anemia. Misc: ALLERGIC REACTIONS, INCLUDING ANAPHYLAXIS, superinfection.
PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPLICATIONS
Examination and Evaluation
Watch for seizures; notify physician immediately if patient develops or increases seizure activity.
Monitor signs of pseudomembranous colitis, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, pus or mucus in stools, and other severe or prolonged Gi problems (nausea, vomiting, heartburn). Notify physician or nursing staff immediately of these signs.
Monitor signs of allergic reactions and anaphylaxis, including pulmonary symptoms (tightness in the throat and chest, wheezing, cough dyspnea) or skin reactions (rash, pruritus, urticaria). Notify physician or nursing staff immediately if these reactions occur.
Monitor signs of blood dyscrasias, including hemolytic anemia (unusual weakness and fatigue, dizziness, jaundice, abdominal pain) and thrombocytopenia (bruising, nose bleeds, bleeding gums, other unusual bleeding). Report these signs to the physician.
Always wash hands thoroughly and disinfect equipment (whirlpools, electrotherapeutic devices, treatment tables, and so forth) to help prevent the spread of infection. Employ universal precautions or isolation procedures as indicated for specific patients.
Instruct patient to notify physician immediately of signs of superinfection, including black, furry overgrowth on tongue, vaginal itching or discharge, and loose or foul-smelling stools.
Instruct patient and family/caregivers to report other troublesome side effects such as severe or prolonged headache, skin problems (rash, hives), vaginal infections, or GI problems (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain).
Absorption: Cefpodoxime proxetil is a prodrug that is converted to cefpodoxime (the active component) in GI tract during absorption; 50% absorbed after oral administration; absorption of tablets increased with food.
Distribution: Widely distributed. Crosses the placenta; enters breast milk.
Metabolism and Excretion: 29–33% excreted unchanged in urine.
Half-life: 2–3 hr (increased in renal impairment).